Pressure in system of an electric equipment of cars Hyundai makes 12 V.Elektrooborudovanie is executed under the single-wire scheme — negative conclusions of sources and electric power consumers are connected to a body of the car which carries out function of the second wire – "weight". A food of all electric devices is carried out from the battery of lead-acid type recharged from the generator of an alternating current.
In the present section service and repair of some elements of system of an onboard electric equipment are described. Besides, diagnostics of malfunctions of an electric equipment is considered.
Security measures at work with an electric equipment
At repair of an electric equipment and the engine power supply system disconnect a wire from the plug «–» the storage battery.
At replacement of safety locks it is forbidden to apply screw-drivers and the metal tool as it can lead to short circuit in electric equipment chains.
It is forbidden to disconnect the switchboard of ignition and the storage battery on the working engine as thereof the regulator of pressure and elements of the electronic equipment of the car can fail.
At check of chains of an electric equipment it is forbidden to close on "weight" of a wire (to check serviceability of chains «on a spark») in order to avoid failure of elements of an electric equipment.
It is forbidden even to connect quickly a conclusion «30» generators to "weight" (to check generator work «on a spark») as it will lead to failure of diodes выпрямительного the generator block. To check the generator on the car it is possible only the voltmeter and the ampermeter. In order to avoid failure of diodes выпрямительного the block it is forbidden to check them мегомметром or the control lamp fed with pressure more 12 In, and also to check such devices of a chain of an electric equipment on the car without a detachment of wires from the generator. To check resistance of isolation of a winding статора the generator the raised pressure it is necessary on the generator which has been removed from the car, at disconnected from выпрямительного the block winding conclusions статора.
At carrying out of electrowelding works on the car it is necessary to disconnect wires from plugs of the storage battery and generator conclusions.
Do not concern elements of system of ignition and high-voltage wires at the working engine.
Do not lay a wire low and a high voltage in one plait.
At additional charge with the help зарядного devices of the storage battery on the car disconnect wires from battery plugs.
Diagnostics of malfunctions of an onboard electric equipment
The structure of a typical electric chain can include the basic electric element, various switches, the relay, electromotors, safety locks, fusible inserts or the breakers of the chain concerning the given element, and also conducting and the contact sockets serving for connection of a basic element with the storage battery and "weight" of a body. For simplification of search of malfunctions of electric chains in a management basic electric schemes and schemes of electric connections are resulted.
Before starting works on elimination of malfunctions in any electric chain, attentively study the corresponding scheme as more as possible to be clear in the mind about its functional purpose. The troubleshooting circle is usually narrowed at the expense of gradual definition and an exception of normally functioning elements of the same contour. At simultaneous failure at once several elements or contours most a refusal plausible reason is перегорание a corresponding safety lock or grounding infringement (different chains in many cases can become isolated on one safety lock or a grounding conclusion).
Electric equipment refusals frequently speak the elementary reasons, such as corrosion of contacts of sockets, safety lock failure, перегорание a fusible insert or relay damage. Spend visual check of a condition of all safety locks, conducting and contact sockets of a chain before starting more concrete check of serviceability of its components.
In case of application for troubleshooting of diagnostic devices carefully plan (according to applied electric schemes), in
What points of a contour and in what sequence it is necessary to connect the device for the purpose of the most effective revealing of malfunction.
The number of the basic diagnostic devices includes a tester of electric chains or the voltmeter (the 12-volt control lamp with the complete set of connecting wires can be used also), the indicator of breakage the chains (sampler), including a lamp, own power supply and the complete set of connecting wires. Besides, always it is necessary to have in the car the complete set of wires for start-up of the engine from an extraneous source (the storage battery of other car), equipped with clips of type "crocodile" and it is desirable the breaker of an electric chain which can be applied to shunting and connection of various elements of an electric equipment at chain diagnostics. As it was already mentioned before starting check of a chain by means of the diagnostic equipment, define under schemes of a place of its connection.
Stock-takings of pressure of a food are spent in case of infringement of an electric chain. Connect one of wires of a tester of electric chains or to the negative plug of the storage battery, or to well earthed point of a body of the car. Other wire of a tester connect to contact of a socket of a checked chain, it is preferable to the nearest to the storage battery or a safety lock. If the control lamp of a tester lights up, pressure of a food on the given piece of a chain is that confirms serviceability of a chain between the given point of a chain and the storage battery. Operating in the same way, investigate the chain rest. Detection of infringement of pressure of a food testifies to malfunction presence between the given point of a chain and last from checked up earlier (where there was a pressure of a food). In most cases the cause of a failure consists in easing of contact sockets and damage of contacts (oxidation).
Remember that some chains of an onboard electric equipment receive a food only in the event that the ignition key is in position «АСС» (parking) or «RUN» (movement).
Searches of a place of short circuit. One of methods of search of short circuit is extraction of a safety lock and connection instead of it a lamp-sampler or the voltmeter. Pressure in a chain should be absent. Pull conducting, observing of a lamp-sampler. If the lamp starts to blink — somewhere in the given plait of wires there is a short circuit on "weight", probably, caused перетиранием isolation of wires. Similar check can be spent for each of components of an electric chain by inclusion of corresponding switches.
Check of serviceability of grounding. The given check is spent for definition of reliability of grounding of an element of a chain. Disconnect the storage battery and connect one of wires лампыпробника, having the independent power supply, to the obviously well earthed point. Other wire of a lamp connect to a checked plait of wires or socket contact. If the lamp lights up, grounding is perfectly in order (and on the contrary).
Check on absence of breakage is spent for detection of breakages of an electric chain. After switching-off of a food of a contour check up it by means of a lamp-sampler with the independent power supply. Connect sampler wires to both ends of a chain. If the control lamp lights up, breakage in a chain is not present. If the lamp does not light up, it testifies to presence in a breakage chain. Similarly it is possible to check up and serviceability of the switch, having connected a sampler to its contacts. While translating the switch in position "Incl." the sampler lamp should light up.
Localisation of a place of breakage. At diagnostics of the suspect on presence of breakage of a site of an electric chain visually to find out a cause of defect it appears difficult enough as survey of plugs on presence of corrosion or infringement of quality of their contacts is complicated because of the limited access to them (usually plugs are closed by the case of a contact socket). Sharp twitching of the case of a socket on the gauge or a plait of its wires in many cases leads to contact restoration. Do not forget about it at attempts of localisation of a cause of a failure of the suspect on presence of breakage of a chain. Astably arising refusals can be a consequence of oxidation of plugs or infringements of quality of contacts.
Diagnostics of malfunctions of electric chains does not represent a difficult problem under condition of that accurate representation that the electric current arrives to all consumers (a lamp, the electromotor, etc.) from the storage battery on wires through switches, the relay, safety locks, fusible inserts, and then comes back in the battery through "weight" of a body of the car. Any problems connected with refusal of an electric equipment, can be caused a stopping delivery on them of an electric current from the battery or return of a current to the battery.
Wires, safety locks and the relay
Protection of electric chains of the car against short circuit is provided with application of safety locks, breakers of chains and fusible inserts. The burnt down safety lock is easy for distinguishing from serviceable by survey of its transparent plastic case. Attentively examine a safety lock. If the safety lock outwardly looks normally, but suspicions on its malfunction have remained, check up conductivity between contacts ножевого the type, acting of its case.
At replacement of safety locks watch conformity of face value of a new safety lock to face value of the old. The safety locks calculated on a various current strength can look outwardly identical, therefore it is necessary to give special attention to marks. Replacement of the burnt down safety lock on calculated on smaller, and especially on big, a current strength is undesirable. Each electric chain requires different degree of protection. Watch that marks on the safety lock case corresponded to a current strength on which it is calculated
Corresponding chain. If the replaced safety lock immediately fuses, it is unreasonable to continue its replacement. First of all it is necessary to define and eliminate its reason перегорания. In most cases that appears short circuit in the electric chain, caused by breakage or damage of isolation of a wire.
Protection of some electric chains is carried out by inclusion in them of fusible inserts. Usually inserts are used for protection of the chains which have been not equipped with safety locks, such as a chain of system of ignition.
Fusible inserts are similar to safety locks in the sense that their exit out of operation (оплавление) is easily defined visually.
For replacement of a fusible insert disconnect a wire from the negative plug of the storage battery. Take burnt down insert and establish on its place the new. Before insert replacement necessarily try to define the reason of the overload which have caused an exit of an insert out of operation.
Chain breakers (thermal relays)
Thermal relays serve for protection of such elements, as electric drives стеклоподъемников, locks of doors and the electroproof-reader. Some of breakers of chains are established in the assembly block. Return of thermal relays to an initial condition on some models is carried out automatically, i.e. at overload occurrence in a chain the thermal relay is instantly disconnected, then after cooling reverts to the original state. If contour return into position does not occur, it is necessary to check up it immediately. Normal functioning of the thermal relay confirms serviceability of a contour. Some of breakers are equipped by buttons for compulsory return to an initial condition manually.
Replacement of safety locks
For prevention of short circuit and overloads of consumers of the electric power separate contours are protected by safety locks. On cars Hyundai safety locks with contacts ножевого the type, corresponding to last technical achievements are used.
Before safety lock replacement at first necessarily disconnect the corresponding consumer.
Hook a cover of the block of safety locks a narrow screw-driver and remove it.
The fused safety lock is defined on the fused metal strip. The arrangement of safety locks is shown on an inside of a cover of the block of safety locks.
Take out a faulty safety lock the plastic tweezers which are in a cover of the block of safety locks.
Insert a new safety lock of the same face value (current strength).
If again inserted safety lock fuses through short time, check up a corresponding electric chain.
At all do not replace a safety lock with a wire or similar auxiliary means («жучками») as because of it in system of an electric equipment of the car there can be serious damages.
It is recommended to have always in the car a set of spare safety locks of different face value. For their storage in the block of safety locks the corresponding place is provided.
The current strength on which the safety lock is calculated, is put on an underside of its case. Besides, the case is painted in corresponding colour on which it is possible to define a nominal current strength (tab. 7.1).
Close a cover of the block of safety locks.
Conformity of colour of a safety lock to a nominal current strength
Nominal current strength, And
For electric current giving to some elements of an electric equipment of the car relays are used. Infringement of serviceability of the relay leads to refusal of an element served by it. In case of suspicion occurrence on malfunction any of the relay check up it at servicing deport or in a specialised repair truck. Replacement of the failed relay is spent in gathering.
Installation of an additional electric equipment
At drilling of apertures in a body from their edges it is necessary to remove agnails, it is necessary to ground and paint edges. The shaving formed at drilling should be removed from a body. At all works, concerning electric equipments, in order to avoid short circuit it is necessary to disconnect a cable of "weight" from the storage battery.
At switching-off of the storage battery the information from memory of the electronic block of management of the engine and a transmission, antiblocking system and other electric devices, for example a radio receiver and hours is erased.
The cables established at installation of an additional electric equipment, whenever possible it is necessary to lay along plaits of wires and крепить by means of cable collars and rubber plugs.
If it is required, it is necessary to fix in addition sticky wires in order to avoid occurrence of noise of an electromagnetic origin and a friction a tape, cable couplers or similar fastenings. It is necessary to consider that between brake pipelines and rigidly laid electric wires there should be a distance not less than 10 mm, between brake pipelines and the electric wires connected to the engine or other elements of the car, – not less than 25 mm.
At installation of an additional electric equipment check up, whether the stock of capacity of the generator is sufficient. If it is required, establish the generator большей capacities.