Whether all is perfectly in order with the car engine? Perhaps it is time to save money on carrying out of computer diagnostics, and even on repair? To answer these questions to you some councils of the engineer will help, it is a lot of years engaged in repair of foreign cars.
Before addressing to the doctor, each of us is engaged in self-diagnostics. Thus we do not do to ourselves рентгеноскопию, we do not use the electrocardiograph and other sophisticated devices. Simply we feel a forehead, we examine a throat, we listen, whether rattles in a breast, whether корежит a waist. From devices traditionally we use thermometers and, maybe, a watch at pulse measurement.
Here so, in a simple way, we define, whether the organism normally functions. And after all it turns out!
The car engine – the same organism. For its exact diagnostics and treatment there are many difficult devices, adaptations and tools. Various techniques and the receptions demanding thin knowledge of the internal device are used. To begin with we suggest you to master more simple for understanding of a thing.
Let's try understand, on what it is necessary to pay attention at car operation: that it is necessary to feel where to look, where to listen and, maybe, even to smell, to understand, how the engine feels. Do not wish to study together with us – get from a purse one hundred dollars and go on computer diagnostics. Automobile "health services" paid!
Present that you the kind doctor. Having entered into chamber (garage), approach to the patient (car), necessarily greet, tender, calming words tell to it some and suggest to undress to a belt (open a cowl). Begin with external survey of the engine. Remember that nothing reflects internal well-being how pleasant, well-groomed appearance radiating with health.
Strong general impurity of the engine, no less than presence of intensive local leaks, on the contrary, testifies about reeled health. If in the evening, leaving the car, you have providently put on a garage floor under the engine a newspaper blank leaf, take out it and examine. Traces of oil and other operational liquids for a night will leave traces on which you can establish sources of leaks on the newspaper and define their intensity. The it above, the it is necessary to take measures on elimination of malfunctions more likely.
The following step – check and finishing to norm of levels of all operational liquids. First of all us engine oil and a cooling liquid (antifreeze) as their lack is most strongly reflected in engine technical characteristics interest.
It would be desirable to remind and of that (believe, it not a joke) that is necessary to be convinced available fuel of a tank. Practice shows that some inattentive drivers nearly to death torture a starter and the storage battery, having forgotten that before it is necessary to feed and give to drink "good fellow", and then – on a shovel and in the furnace.
At the same time check up a tension of belts of a drive of auxiliary units of the engine (the pump of system of cooling, the generator, the pump of the hydraulic booster of a steering, the conditioner). Be convinced that belts do not sag and are not torn off. If everything is all right, shake off trousers and get into the car.
Before engine start-up
Do not hurry up at once to start up the engine. Haste here to what. In the beginning turn a key in position "ignition". As a rule, in this case on the panel of devices of all modern cars control lamps light up some. At the given stage us two especially interest: the first – a lamp of insufficient pressure of oil in the greasing system, the second – a control lamp of a charge of the storage battery which specifies in readiness of the generator to get into gear after engine start-up. Both lamps at the included ignition even before engine start-up should burn with red light. And if one of them does not burn? If the lamp of a charge of the storage battery was not lighted are half-troubles; if the lamp of insufficient pressure of oil in greasing system does not light up is a disturbing signal. Be attentive, you have lost the control over greasing system! Pressure of oil in the engine – the basic indicator of its serviceability. If you do not supervise pressure of oil, you are threatened with major repairs of the engine with all consequences following from it.
The cause of defect consists or in bad contact of sockets of the gauge, or in the gauge. To search for the gauge, as a rule, follows around the oil filter. Malfunction needs to be eliminated. Only after you were convinced that everything is all right, start up the engine.
The serviceable engine with the adjusted systems of giving of fuel and ignition, the serviceable storage battery is started up from one attempt during 3–5 with. Stably arising problems with "cold" start-up testify to malfunctions. We will assume, we have avoided it also the engine was started up.
We look at the panel of devices. Two lamps about which there was a speech above, are obliged to go out.
If during 5 with a lamp of insufficient pressure of oil in greasing system continues to burn, stop the engine!
After the lapse of several minutes once again try to start up the engine. In case of absence of pressure of oil it is necessary to search for the malfunction reason.
The possible reasons:
— Low level of oil;
— The gauge of pressure of oil is faulty;
— The grid маслоприемника the oil pump is hammered;
— The oil pump is faulty;
— The big deterioration radical and шатунных bearings of a cranked shaft.
If pressure of oil in norm, we start engine inspection in a warming up mode.
Engine warming up
Frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of not heated-up engine approximately in 1,5 times exceeds passport frequency of rotation of the engine idling, a component usually 700–900 mines-1 (turns in a minute), and should decrease smoothly in process of growth of temperature of the engine.
After 7–10 mines from the moment of start-up the engine temperature should reach level 80 °С and be stabilised (as well as idling turns).
This process is easy for checking on a tachometre (the device for measurement of frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine) and to the index of temperature of a cooling liquid.
When warming up proceeds under the above described scenario, the system of idling and system of cooling of the engine work normally.
If the temperature of the engine does not reach the necessary level the thermostat (the regulating valve of system of cooling), most likely, is guilty. The reasons of an overheat of the engine much more, and they are reflected in the subsection of the present management describing system of cooling of the engine.
After the engine will enough get warm also idling turns are stabilised (you learn about it under indications of control devices), time will come to listen, as "sings" the motor.
Beautiful voice – a healthy organism
Doctors assure that in relation to the person this statement is completely fair. The same it is possible to tell and about the engine.
The serviceable engine publishes a uniform rumble and "ticks", as hours. Some masters say that he "whispers". Despite figurativeness of expressions, you have for certain understood that they mean.
If the engine works non-uniformly, with failures, periodically vibrates, know, this certificate of its malfunction. Sometimes
Malfunctions – a consequence of deterioration of details of the engine and compression falling in cylinders, but more often the reasons are негерметичность the inlet path, the littered air filter, failures in work of system of ignition and the power supply system (fuel giving).
It would be desirable to stop on those cases when the engine as speak, «троит», i.e. does not work one of cylinders.
C the help of the diagnostic device a method of consecutive switching-off of cylinders to find "saboteur" simply. As soon as you will get on the faulty cylinder, the engine kind of work will not change.
Frequently the cause of defect can be defined, having examined a spark plug. It allows to learn a lot of the interesting engine about a condition.
It is necessary to mention extraneous noise and knocks. At once we will make a reservation that a similar method of diagnostics – "aerobatics", it on forces to even not all professionals.
Motorists should mean that any sharp metal sounds testify to malfunction. If they are "published" by hinged units (the generator, a pomp (the pump of system of cooling), the hydraulic booster) are half-troubles. To define "originator" of noise it is possible if consistently to remove belts of a drive of these units. If after removal of the next belt the extraneous sound disappears, shake a corresponding pulley for an estimation of size radial and axial люфта bearings. More often they are disturbers of calmness.
With much bigger troubles the knocks which are starting with a belly of the motor threaten. To them listen on various power setting by means of an automobile stethoscope or if it is not present, dry stick in diameter about 10 mm from firm wood (it press to a cheekbone below an ear lobe). Such way possible to reveal defects газораспределительного the mechanism, цилиндропоршневой groups, krivoshipno-shatunnogo the mechanism.
Once again we will underline: to make the diagnosis, ear for music insufficiently, it is necessary to have professional experience and excellent knowledge «матчасти».
A sound mind in a sound body
Diagnostic inspection would be incomplete without the analysis дымности an engine exhaust. It is already enough heated-up, so it is a high time to approach to an exhaust pipe and to glance to a horse «under a tail».
The exhaust of the serviceable engine is almost colourless. The exhaust pipe leaves hardly distinguishable easy smoke of the white colour which intensity amplifies by sharp pressing a gas pedal.
In frosty weather the serviceable car reserves dense enough clubs of white steam (not to confuse to a smoke!), testifying to full combustion of fuel.
Long to inhale exhaust gases it is not necessary. We stop the engine. But it yet the ending. It is necessary to survey an internal surface of a stopper маслоналивной mouths. Presence on it of traces made foam эмульсии lurid colour – very disturbing symptom speaking about infiltration in system of greasing of the cooling liquid. Having uncovered a broad tank, survey appearance of antifreeze.
To avoid a trauma (burn), to do it it is necessary on the cooled down engine!
Oil film on an antifreeze surface, just as the made foam engine oil, – harbingers of fast repair of the engine.
Here, perhaps, and all. We completely surveyed "patient", it is literally «from a nose to a tail tip». Also used at survey not expensive, inaccessible to the majority of motorists the equipment, and that is given us by nature – sight, hearing, sense of smell and, certainly, mysterious «grey substance».
The exhaust analysis
Oily corbel in width of 6-8 mm on an external surface of an exhaust pipe of the car («mourning ободок») – a consequence of the raised expense of oil. Engine major repairs are inevitable.
Smoke of black colour.
Sign of incomplete combustion of fuel. The power supply system prepares very rich mix and requires adjustment.
Smoke of a grey (violet) shade.
Sign of the raised expense of oil. The engine demands replacement маслосъемных caps or repair цилиндропоршневой group.
Dense white smoke.
Sign of a burn-out of a lining of a head of the block of cylinders of the engine. The cooling liquid gets to the combustion chamber.
Smoke with a smell of the fulfilled gases from the removed branch pipe of system of ventilation картера (сапуна) the engine.
Sign of break of the fulfilled gases in oil картер because of the increased backlashes in цилиндропоршневой to group.
Much "eats", but silently goes
If the engine is badly started up, poorly pulls and spends a lot of fuel – the hitch can appear at all in of what first you think. Simple, apparently, the situation from the point of view of original cause definition is the most artful. Many bravely begin independent search, not
Understanding that these displays can be a consequence of variety of the reasons, from elementary to enough serious. It is good, if at you the car in which simple and out-of-date technical decisions, – classical "Zhigulis" are used, "Muscovite" and "Volga" – it is possible to address safely to the mechanics having experience in area of repair of similar cars.
But, having replaced the car with more modern, many motorists continue to address to the same masters. And they do not have not enough courage to admit that they do not understand the difficult processes occurring in systems of injection of fuel and electronic schemes of ignition. They investigate a spark «on breakdown», damaging thus transistors, isolation of windings of coils of ignition, high-voltage wires and «проторивая» current-carrying paths on covers and rotors of distributors of ignition. Without solving a problem, such mechanics exhaust "illness" inside. And as a result the owner all the same gets to professionally prepared mechanics. Car "treatment" will be, however, already considerably complicated.
Experts quite often get to a situation when after long work even with use of difficult devices they manage nothing to understand. Only after a while (sometimes rather long) it is found out that previous master "clever man" has changed jets in the carburettor or twisted all successively in injection system, eventually has broken its tightness or "has killed" the pressure gauge.
The list of the possible reasons leading to the raised expense of fuel and decrease of capacity of the engine, is rather rich. And except them there is a number uncharacteristic, but serious and often enough meeting malfunctions, such as прогар the piston, fuel hit in oil, failure of one of gauges of temperature of system of injection and the thermostat, перепутывание vacuum tubes, destruction of one of linings of the carburettor, piston rings or piston partitions.
Diagnostics is necessary for spending without dismantling, the chance only for a while otherwise is great to eliminate a consequence or even to add an existing problem new, sometimes with more difficult.
For example, the reasons leading to decrease of capacity of a spark, it is a lot of. If diagnostics is carried out on a multipurpose motor-tester, on its screen at once it is possible to define, what lack takes place.
The situation when, having found out signs of abnormal work of the engine is extended, the motorist goes to the mechanic. That, having measured a compression of the engine and having found out conformity to norm, starts to regulate both the carburettor, and ignition system, achieving steady work. Sometimes it is possible. The engine is regularly got, ceases глохнуть, but thus draught and the fuel expense leave much to be desired. In what an error?
In the worn out engine often takes place негерметичность epiploons of valves. Oil getting on pistons leads to artificial indemnification of the backlashes which have arisen at deterioration of pistons, rings and cylinders. As a result at compression gauging false testimonies turn out. Elimination of this malfunction after "the repair" made the mechanic, is considerably complicated because of necessity of restoration of initial adjustments.
The return situation when the owner unfairly "plunge" into major repairs though would be to replace the same epiploons enough is rather extended also that in ten with superfluous time is cheaper.
Unfortunately, till now in the market of maintenance service of cars remains about equal division into the stations meeting modern requirements on qualification, technical and cultural service, and on splinters it is sad memorable Soviet car-care centre. Therefore automobile owners should familiarise with a technical centre on which hole the car will be established attentively. And it is not so much with cost of services, how many how, than and in what conditions will diagnose and repair the car.